Automobiles and Transmissions
The era of the road cruiser ended in the early 1960s, with the federal government imposing standards for safety, pollution, and energy consumption. The era was also marked by escalating gas prices. The German “Bug” became the modern equivalent of the Model T, and Japan stepped up production with fuel-efficient small cars.
Ford Model N
The first Model N sold in 1927 for $500 and was a very popular car. It was cheaper than the curved-dash Oldsmobile and came with twin side oil lamps and a horn. The car also came with a leather top, and the fuel tank held about 10 gallons. The car was capable of a 200-mile range on rough roads.
The Model N came with a 149-cubic-inch four-cylinder engine that developed 15 to 18 horsepower and a two-speed planetary transmission. It also had internal expanding brakes. The Model N was an inexpensive and rugged car. The Ford Museum acquired this car in 1977 from William T. Dooley Jr.
Daimler and Maybach
Daimler and Maybach were partners in business, and in 1892 they began production of the world’s first internal combustion-powered motorcycle and boat. Their partnership grew, and they eventually founded the Daimler Motors Corporation. The first automobile was sold in 1892. Daimler eventually resigned from the company, and Maybach became a board member. The automobile was formally unveiled in Paris. Daimler’s wife died a few months later.
The partnership between Daimler and Maybach began in 1882, when Daimler and Maybach bought a summer cottage in Cannstatt, Germany. They paid 75,000 Gold marks for it. While there, they added a brick extension onto the summer house to use as a workshop. Soon after, neighbors began to report Daimler and Maybach as counterfeiters. Police searched the house while they were away and found engines and parts.
Nicolaus August Otto
Nikolaus August Otto, a German inventor, is widely recognized as the inventor of the Otto-cycle engine. Although he was not formally trained in engineering, his invention of a four-stroke internal combustion engine revolutionized the automobile industry. The Otto cycle is still widely used today in automobiles. Born in Holzhausen auf der Heide, Germany, Otto spent his early life working in a grocery store. At age 16, he left school and worked as a clerk in Frankfurt. He eventually gave up his job and became a traveling salesman. During his travels, he met his future wife, a woman he met at a carnival in Cologne.
The internal combustion engine was first invented by Nicolaus Otto, a German industrialist. His gasoline-powered engine was the first practical alternative to the steam engine. Nicolaus Otto built his own engine in 1861 in partnership with German industrialist Eugen Langen. Their initial design was inefficient and required large amounts of water to cool. But Otto saw the potential of the gas-powered engine and teamed up with another engineer, Eugen Langen, to design and patent an improved design.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) mandate
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is responsible for ensuring the safety of automobiles on the road. Its mandates cover everything from the design of highways to the use of safety belts and air bags. The agency also enforces laws against drunk driving and conducts research on driver behavior. It also provides consumer information about motor vehicle safety.
The NHTSA’s regulatory programs have been slowed by several reasons. One reason is that the motor vehicle industry is actively involved in the rulemaking process. Historically, NHTSA has relied on the industry for technical information. Furthermore, it is difficult for the agency to issue a safety standard when industry is opposed to it. In addition, the agency has to be ordered by Congress to issue the mandate.
Types of transmissions in automobiles
Transmissions in automobiles have many uses, but their basic function is to transfer engine power from the engine to the wheels. These transmissions use a gearbox, which contains a series of gears, to change the speed of the engine. These transmissions can be large or small, and are designed to produce the desired power and torque ratios.
Automatic transmissions use a torque converter to control the engine’s gears, and they may also include clutches or bands to control shifting. Some types of automatic transmissions also allow for limited manual control. These transmissions often have a gear selector or paddles on the steering wheel. Other types of automatic transmissions, like the autostick and Tiptronic, are designed to mimic manual transmissions.